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Curcumin is the most bioactive substance in turmeric, with a wide variety of benefits such as antioxidant, anti-tumor, metal toxicity, neuroprotection, kidney, liver, and heart health, gut inflammation, and more. Curcumin by itself has very poor bioavailability when consumed, in this article we outline different methods to enhance bioavailability, explaining how, and which method gives the best result for delivering the most effective curcumin.   FIGURE 1: The many benefits of curcumin displayed in humans0     Curcumin and Bioavailability Turmeric has been used as a spice and for medicinal treatment for over 4000 years in India for treatment of...

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Astaxanthin is a carotenoid responsible for the red pigmentation in salmon and krill. It is the most stable carotenoid structure and a potent antioxidant with proven cardiovascular, brain, and immune system benefits. Many of its benefits come from its unique molecular structure, which we will discuss in this article. Carotenoids Carotenoids are known to have benefits in human health for their health benefits to reduce disease – particularly eye diseases and certain cancers1. Some common carotenoids are beta-carotene, lycopene, and lutein. Carotenoids are comprised of two different types: xanthophyll or carotenes, which cannot be synthesized by humans and must come...

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Dietary supplements offer a myriad of health benefits, but it is important that what the research concerning a particular supplement is showing in vitro is what is actually occurring in humans in vivo. In order to make sure this occurs, it is important for the supplement to have high bioavailability, whereas many supplements are poorly bioavailable. The bioavailability of supplements depends on the molecular properties of the compound and the route of administration in the body. Bioavailability is the fraction of the drug or supplement that is given that will reach systemic circulation.   Methods of Administration For drugs and...

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Tauroursodeoxycholic Acid (TUDCA) is a water soluble secondary bile acid that is found in large amounts in bear bile. In humans, trace amounts of TUDCA are formed when primary bile acids undergo bacterial metabolism to UDCA, and are then conjugated with Taurine to give TUDCA. TUDCA is a very promising molecule known for its ability to counteract regular bile acid toxicity in the liver, but also has many other beneficial effects. Another unique ability of TUDCA is its ability to prevent protein unfolding in the Endoplasmic Reticulum, reducing cell death. This ability is responsible for many of the benefits of...

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Berberine is a quarternary ammonium salt (Figure 1) found in the roots, rhizomes, stems, and bark of plants such as Barberry (Berberis Vulgaris), Tree Turmeric (Berberis Aristata), Goldenseal (Hydrastis canadensis), and Oregon Grape (Mahonia Aquifolium). The use of berberine plant rich species such as the Berberis family has been used in Asia for over 3000 years1. Many clinical and experimental studies show that berberine has pharmacological properties such as immunomodulatory, antioxidative, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and renoprotective effects. In medicinal chemistry, the structure of Berberine has been modified to create bioactive derivatives in order to increase potency and selectivity2.    Figure 1:...

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